Frame’s views on regeneration emphasize his view that the ordo salutis is not clearly linear. His triad on salvation (fig. 43:1) is:

  1. Justification
  2. Regeneration/Conversion/Sanctification
  3. Adoption

Thus he is able to posit a very strong connection between the “subjective” aspects of salvation, such as regeneration and sanctification, but at the expense of an emphasis on the the logical, if not chronological, priority of regeneration to justification and adoption. I think it is better to maintain regeneration’s priority under a different category and I suggest, instead, a seed or inception of the later benefits of salvation after human response in conversion (by which I mean the saving event and not the longer process as earlier theologians would often use the word).

My triad for regeneration is:

  1. Inspiration
  2. Illumination
  3. Implantation
    1. Faith
    2. Hope
    3. Love

The triad of eminent virtues (faith, hope, and love) seem to be to parallel 1. justification, 2. sanctification, 3. adoption, quite nicely. If this is correct, in regeneration, the seeds of faith, hope, and love are conceived in us by the Holy Spirt and become the basis for the human response in conversion:

Conversion triad:

  1. Faith
  2. Repentance
  3. Confession

Faith then, normatively, albeit not separated from repentance and conversion, unite us to Christ, and bring to us, with him, all the benefits of his own work.

  1. Justification
  2. Sanctification
  3. Adoption

Notice that this is extremely close to Frame’s triad, but I think it is superior to have both regeneration and conversion precede this category of salvation’s benefits in uinon with Christ. Notice to that these benefits are ours through union particularly on account of Christ’s own justification, sanctification/consecration, and adoption as the last Adam in our stead.


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