Given the regular picture of the nations streaming to Zion (e.g. Mic. 4:1-3; Zech. 8:20-23), the pilgrimage of the queen of Sheba to Solomon may also have influenced the development of Zion theology (cf. 1 Kings 10). (p264)
Just as God’s Spirit restores the fruitfulness of the land (Joel 2:18-27), people will be restored by the outpouring of GOd’s Spirit (2:28-29), with a focus on the their ability to prophesy (2:28: “your sons and daughters shall prophesy”), on the assumption that the prophet is the archetype of the Spirit-filled person (esp. Num 11:29). (p266)
…”the two sons of new oil” (Zech. 4:14 ESV mg.)… are probably the prophets Haggai and Zecharaiah.” (p26)

Excellent, and well-balanced section here:

The consistent patterns is of the foreign nations coming in (centripetal) rather than of Israel reaching out (centrifugal), with Zion as the political and religious center of the world (e.g., 60:3). The nations will be drawn to the light that they may witness Zion’s vindication (62:1-2), and their role is to bring tribute (60:5-7, 11, 16) and to labor in menial tasks (60:10, 12-14, 61:5-6), repairing their earlier despoliation of Israel and their destruction of her cities. But some Isaianic passage go further, and foreigners “who join themselves to the LORD” (=proselytes) are given full standing and even ministry roles in the worshiping community of the temple, wihch will be a “a house of prayer for all peoples” (Isa. 56:6-7). Finally, in 66:18-21, there is a New Testament-style sending of messengers to the farthest corners of the earth (e.g., Tarshish, Put [or Pul (Africa)], Javan [Greece]), and “to the coastlands far away” (=the shores of the Mediterranean), and the clause “that have not heard my fame or seen my glory” (66:19) shows that distant nations are in view. (p267)
These covenant are not unconnected, nor are they founded on different or incompatible principles; rather, the biblical presentation is that later covenants build on, and are vehicles for, the fulfillment of earlier covenants. (p268)
A special focus on the Sinai covenant in any reading of the Old Testament is, however, justified, for it is referred to far more than other covenants,, and the new covenant is a revamped Sinai covenant, making the relation between the two covenants a key issue in both Testaments. (p269)
It would be reductionistic, however, to reduce the rich theology of the Old Testament to just one theme. Moreover, it may be detrimental to try to turn everything the Old Testament says into “covenant theology.” Other themes might be highlighted that are equally prominent (or nearly so), one obvious candidate being the theme of God’s kingdom. There is the danger of finding covenant thinking where it is not actually present; for example, not everyone detects a divine covenant in the first two chapters of Genesis. (p271-272)

Regarding the covenant of creation or works, I remain committed to this idea, and believe it forms the second part of an overarching triad of covenants:

  1. Eternal Covenant
  2. Creation Covenant
  3. New Covenant

For one excellent defense of the covenant of creation (which nomenclature I prefer to “covenant of works”) see Gentry, Kingdom through Covenant, chapter 6.

Old Testament prophecy does, however, finally come to an end, and the Book of the Twelve may be an anti-prophetic document, in the sense that it restricts prophecy to a limited number of sources. The restriction of the number to twelve prophets (and no more) may be viewed as an assertion of the completion of prophecy…. No prophets are expected until an Elijah-figure returns “before the great and terrible day of the LORD comes” (Mal. 4:5 RSV). In summary, the figure of Moses is the fount of prophecy, and the message of the Prophets is the echo of his preaching (cf. Mal. 4:4). (p274)






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